Spring 6 JdbcClient: When and How to Use it?

As of Spring 6.1, the JdbcClient provides a unified client API for JDBC query and update operations, offering a more fluent and simplified interaction model. This tutorial demonstrates how to use the JdbcClient for various scenarios.

1. Database Access Approaches in Spring

Spring framework provides several distinct approaches to database access. The two popular approaches are:

  • Unified APIs for directly executing the SQL statements, for example, JdbcTemplate
  • ORM framework support, for example, Hibernate

The unified APIs provide a straightforward and efficient approach, allowing developers to work with SQL queries in a more direct manner. Key components of this approach include JdbcTemplate, NamedParameterJdbcTemplate and JdbcClient.

Object-relational mapping (ORM) frameworks, such as Hibernate, provide an abstraction layer over relational databases, allowing developers to interact with the database using object-oriented paradigms. This enables developers to map Java objects to database tables, abstracting away the details of SQL queries.

The choice between direct SQL execution and ORM framework support depends on various factors, including the complexity of the application, developer preferences, and specific project requirements. Direct SQL execution is favored for its simplicity and control, while ORM frameworks excel in scenarios where object-oriented design and abstraction are priorities.

2. Difference between JdbcClient Vs. JdbcTemplate

The JdbcTemplate is a core class in Spring Data that simplifies the use of JDBC and eliminates much of the boilerplate code associated with traditional JDBC usage. It provides methods for executing SQL queries, updates, and stored procedures.

It has the following features:

  • Executes SQL queries, updates, and stored procedures.
  • Parameterized queries using ‘?’ placeholders.
  • Row mapping through RowMapper or ResultSetExtractor.

Consider the following code for example.

public int getCountOfUsers(String name) {

  String sql = "SELECT COUNT(*) FROM users WHERE name = ?";
  return jdbcTemplate.queryForObject(sql, Integer.class, name);

The JdbcClient is an enhanced and unified JDBC client API introduced in Spring 6.1, providing a fluent interaction model for both named and positional parameter statements. It aims to streamline JDBC operations further.

It has the following features:

  • Unified support for both named and positional parameters.
  • Aims to simplify JDBC operations further.
  • Introduced as part of the evolving Spring framework.

Consider the following code for example.

public int getCountOfUsers(String name) {

  return jdbcClient.sql("SELECT COUNT(*) FROM users WHERE name = ?")

The choice between JdbcTemplate and JdbcClient depends on the project’s context, version of Spring, and developer preferences. Both tools serve the purpose of simplifying database interactions, each with its own set of advantages and use cases.

3. Getting Started with JdbcClient

3.1. Maven

To use JdbcClient in a Spring application, we must ensure that the project is using the minimum Spring 6.1 or Spring Boot 3.2 version.

  <relativePath/> <!-- lookup parent from repository -->

  <!-- other dependencies -->

3.2. Configuration and Initialization

To configure the JdbcClient, ensure that we have a DataSource bean in the configuration either using properties file or java bean configuration.

Instances of the JdbcClient class are thread-safe, once configured. A popular approach is to dependency-inject the DataSource bean into the Repository/Dao classes. The JdbcClient is created in the repository constructor using the statement JdbcClient.create(). The DataSource bean is injected automatically by the Spring framework using constructor injection.

public class PersonRepository {

  private final JdbcClient jdbcClient;

  public PersonRepository(DataSource dataSource) {
    this.jdbcClient = JdbcClient.create(dataSource);


3.3. A Simple Example to Use JdbcClient

Once the JdbcClient instance has been constructed, we can use it for executing the SQL queries using its convenient methods.

public Optional<Person> findById(Long id) {

  String sql = "select id, first_name, last_name, created_at from person where id = :id";

  return jdbcClient.sql(sql)
    .param("id", id)
    .query((rs, rowNum) -> new Person(

4. Passing Parameters to SQL Statements

The JdbcCleint API is quite flexible in accepting the SQL parameters. Let us see a few ways.

4.1. Positional Parameters

Positional parameters are placeholders in a query or statement that are identified by their position or order within the statement. These parameters are represented by placeholders like ‘?’ in the SQL statement.

In the following example, the query parameters for first_name, last_name and created_at are registered implicitly in the order in which they are assigned to the method StatementSpec.param().

String sql = "insert into person(first_name, last_name, created_at) values (?, ?, ?)";


We can also pass the parameters in as var-args using the StatementSpec.params() method as follows:

  .params("Alex", "Dave", Timestamp.from(Instant.now()))

Further, it is also possible to pass the parameters as a List.

  .params(List.of("Alex", "Dave", Timestamp.from(Instant.now())))

If we want to further ensure that we are binding the parameters in the correct order, we can even pass the parameter index to be double sure.

  .param(1, "Alex")
  .param(2, "Dave")
  .param(3, Timestamp.from(Instant.now()))

4.2. Named Parameters

Similar to NamedParameterJdbcTemplate, the JdbcClient also supports the named SQL statement parameters with the placeholder ':paramName' format.

String sql = "insert into person(first_name, last_name, created_at) values (:firstName, :lastName, :createdAt)";

  .param("firstName, "Alex")
  .param("lastName", "Dave")
  .param("createdAt", Timestamp.from(Instant.now()))

It is also possible to pass the named parameters in the form of a Map where keys represent the named parameters and values are passed to the query in runtime.

Map<String, ?> paramMap = Map.of(
  "firstName", "Alex",
  "lastName", "Dave",
  "createdAt", Timestamp.from(Instant.now())


4.3. Parameter Source

To make things even simpler, it is also possible to pass an object (a record class, a class with bean properties, or a plain field holder) that has field names matching the named parameters.

In the following example, we perform an INSERT operation into a database using values from the person object.

Person person = new Person(null, "Clark", "Kent", Instant.now());


The Person class is a record type that has matching field names with named parameters.

public record Person(Long id, String firstName, String lastName, Instant createdAt) {

Similarly, we can use the SimplePropertySqlParameterSource and BeanPropertySqlParameterSource strategies as well.

SqlParameterSource namedParameters = new BeanPropertySqlParameterSource(person);


5. Mapping ResultSet to Objects

5.1. Using Custom RowMapper

When querying the rows from the database, we can retrieve the values of the columns using the ResultSet as shown in section 2.3. But if we want to add more flexibility and clean code then we can consider using the RowMapper.

The following PersonRowMapper class implements the RowMapper interface and overrides the mapRow() method which contains the logic to map a database row to a Person instance.

import java.sql.ResultSet;
import java.sql.SQLException;
import java.sql.Timestamp;
import java.time.Instant;
import com.howtodoinjava.model.Person;
import org.springframework.jdbc.core.RowMapper;

public class PersonRowMapper implements RowMapper<Person> {

  private PersonRowMapper() {}

  private static final PersonRowMapper INSTANCE = new PersonRowMapper();

  public static PersonRowMapper getInstance() {
    return INSTANCE;

  public Person mapRow(ResultSet rs, int rowNum) throws SQLException {
    return new Person(

  private Instant getInstantFromTimestamp(Timestamp timestamp) {
    return (timestamp != null) ? timestamp.toInstant() : null;

Now, we can use the PersonRowMapper in the query() method and Spring takes care of using the mapper internally and we get the Person instance directly.

String querySql = "select id, first_name, last_name, created_at from person where id = :id";

Optional<Person> personOptional = jdbcClient.sql(querySql)
  .param("id", 1)

5.2. Using Class Mapping

If creating a PersonRowMapper seems like extra effort because you have a direct field mapping between the class fields and database columns, you can directly pass the class type of the query() method and it will also work.

String querySql = "select id, first_name, last_name, created_at from person where id = :id";

Optional<Person> personOptional = jdbcClient.sql(querySql)
  .param("id", 1)

6. SQL Query and Update Operations

JdbcClient supports all types of DB manipulations like selecting, creating, updating, and deleting records.

  • The query() operation executes a given SQL query, with several result options available in the returned query specification such as mapped class, RowMapper, RowCallbackHandler and ResultSetExtractor.
  • The update() operation executes the provided SQL statement as an update. It always returns an int value indicating the number of rows affected.

We have also seen the example of these methods in previous sections so let’s not repeat again.

7. Consideration for Batch Inserts and Stored procedures

The JdbcClient is a flexible but very simplified facade for only JDBC query/update statements. If you need to do more complex things, like performing batch operations or calling stored procedures, JdbcClient might not have all the features you need.

In those cases, you may want to use other tools provided by Spring, such as SimpleJdbcInsert or SimpleJdbcCall.

Alternatively, you can go back to using the more basic JdbcTemplate directly for tasks that JdbcClient doesn’t cover as thoroughly. Think of it like having different tools in a toolbox – you pick the one that’s best for the job you’re doing.

8. Conclusion

In this tutorial, we explored the initial configuration and basics of using Spring 6 JdbcClient for both query and update operations. As discussed, the JdbcClient offers a simplified and unified API for JDBC interactions, making the code more concise and readable.

Happy Learning !!

Source Code on Github


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